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Trump Signs Executive Order To Protect, Build U.S. Rare

Oct 01, 2020 “The executive order is designed to establish independence from relying on China and other nations for its strategic rare earth minerals and metals. It’s a declaration that the U.S. must be

How Rare-Earth Mining Has Devastated China's Environment

Jul 14, 2020 Rare-earth mining is notorious for the environmental hazards it poses and while the challenges of cleaning up the environment are steep, researchers in China are making breakthroughs that could turn the tide. — What Are Rare-Earth Metals? Rare-earth metals are a set of seventeen elements, including scandium, yttrium, and praseodymium.

(PDF) Social and Environmental Impact of the Rare Earth

Mar 01, 2014 the municipal environmental protection ag ency showed that rare e arth minerals were the source of. Although the cost of rare earth metals (industrial vitamins) such as praseodymium

Rare Earths from Mines to Metals: Comparing Environmental

Sep 22, 2016 Ehsan Vahidi, Fu Zhao, Assessing the environmental footprint of the production of rare earth metals and alloys via molten salt electrolysis, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.08.010, 139, (178-187), (2018).

Green New Deal must recognize rare earth metals to fight

Mar 05, 2019 Any environmental policy would need to address these factors. The second problem is that the vast majority of all rare earth production and processing happens in

U.S. Deposits of Rare-Earth Elements Are . . . Not So Rare

As I noted back in December, the United States is sitting on a massive supply of rare-earth metals. We just haven’t worked out a way to access it in a way that environmentalists find acceptable

A Look at Rare Earth Metals and Their Applications

Dec 04, 2019 Rare Earth Metals and Their Applications . In the periodic table of the elements, the third column lists the rare earth elements. The third row of the third column is expanded below the chart, listing the lanthanide series of elements. Scandium and Yttrium are listed as rare earth metals, although they are not part of the lanthanide series.

Rare Earth Metals: Will We Have Enough?

Sep 19, 2012 China currently supplies 97 percent of global rare earth metal demand, and 100 percent of heavy rare earth metals such as terbium and dysprosium, used in wind turbines. In 2005, it began restricting exports to preserve resources and protect the environment, causing prices to soar.

Rare-earth element Wikipedia

The rare-earth elements, also called the rare-earth metals or (in context) rare-earth oxides, or the lanthanides (though yttrium and scandium are usually included as rare-earths) are a set of 17 nearly indistinguishable lustrous silvery-white soft heavy metals. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare-earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and

Environmental Damage MIT

The list of environmental concerns that can be connected with rare earth elements is not a brief one. Throughout the cycle of mining processes that rare earth elements go through, there is potential for negative effects on the environment. Extracting rare earth elements begins with mining. This is followed by the refining process, and then

Opinion: China controls rare minerals America needs for

Nov 09, 2020 China now supplies 80% of the rare earth metals used in the United States, partly because it follows lower environmental protection standards than the United States and other advanced countries

Rare Earths from Mines to Metals: Comparing Environmental

Sep 22, 2016 Ehsan Vahidi, Fu Zhao, Assessing the environmental footprint of the production of rare earth metals and alloys via molten salt electrolysis, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.08.010, 139, (178-187), (2018).

Green New Deal must recognize rare earth metals to fight

Mar 05, 2019 Any environmental policy would need to address these factors. The second problem is that the vast majority of all rare earth production and processing happens in

Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing

----- Rare Earth Elements Review Section 5 Rare Earth Element Recovery/Alternative Material Use A recent United Nations (UN) report on recycling rates of metals estimates that the end-of-life functional recycling (i.e., recycling in which the physical and chemical properties that made the material desirable in the first place are retained for

WVU awarded $5 million to continue rare earth project

Oct 01, 2019 With the new funding, the WVWRI will partner with the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection’s Office of Special Reclamation to design and build the plant, Rockwell Automation to provide sensor and control technology, and TenCate Corporation to engineer materials for rare earth element extraction. Rare earth metals consist

Assessing the environmental footprint of the production of

Dec 01, 2018 1. Introduction. Rare Earth Elements (REEs) consist of the lanthanide series in the periodic table of elements beginning from lanthanum (La, 57) to lutetium (Lu, 71) along with yttrium (Y, 39) and scandium (Sc, 21) which have similar chemical and physical properties (Castor and Hedrick, 2006; Haque et al., 2014).Considering the significance of REEs in many green energy applications

Rare Earth Metals: Will We Have Enough?

Sep 19, 2012 China currently supplies 97 percent of global rare earth metal demand, and 100 percent of heavy rare earth metals such as terbium and dysprosium, used in wind turbines. In 2005, it began restricting exports to preserve resources and protect the environment, causing prices to soar.

Don't Panic about Rare Earth Elements Scientific American

May 31, 2019 The strong and lightweight nature of rare earth magnets, metals and alloys have made them especially valuable in high-tech products. Originally produced for the October 2011 issue of

Rare Earth Recycling Department of Energy

Jan 01, 2017 Recycling rare-earth-containing products would provide a steady, domestic source of rare earths to manufacturers while also reducing waste. Currently, the main roadblock to recycling rare earth elements is the cost required to purify the mixtures obtained from consumer devices.

Dirty, dangerous and destructive the elements of a

Sep 26, 2011 The environmental and human costs of rare earth metals are high. Yet electronics are still built to be discarded, not recycled SE Smith for This Ain't Livin', part of the Guardian

Rare earth producers aim to agree global environment

Producers of rare earths, under increasing pressure from their industrial buyers over longstanding pollution issues, are hammering out a single set of global environmental standards, the head of

Rare Earths from Mines to Metals: Comparing Environmental

Sep 22, 2016 Over the past decade, China has supplied over 90% of global rare earths, and in doing so bore significant environmental burdens from processing its complex ores. In this study, we used life cycle assessment to quantify environmental impacts for producing 1 kilogram (kg) of 15 rare earth elements from each major production pathway.

New Purdue technologies to extract, purify critical rare

May 06, 2020 The production of rare earth metals is a global $4 billion annual market that continues to grow as new electronics, computerized engines for aircraft, warships, electric automobiles, magnets and other critical products are developed that need rare earth metals to perform. The value of the products that require rare earth metals to function is valued at more than $4 trillion per year.

Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors ScienceDirect

Chapter 2 considers the techniques that can be used to identify corrosion inhibition mechanisms and to test the levels of protection offered to different metals by rare earth compounds. Subsequent chapters consider in more detail how rare earth elements can be used as corrosion inhibitors in different forms and for different metals.

WVU awarded $5 million to continue rare earth project

Oct 01, 2019 With the new funding, the WVWRI will partner with the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection’s Office of Special Reclamation to design and build the plant, Rockwell Automation to provide sensor and control technology, and TenCate Corporation to engineer materials for rare earth element extraction. Rare earth metals consist

Assessing the environmental footprint of the production of

Dec 01, 2018 1. Introduction. Rare Earth Elements (REEs) consist of the lanthanide series in the periodic table of elements beginning from lanthanum (La, 57) to lutetium (Lu, 71) along with yttrium (Y, 39) and scandium (Sc, 21) which have similar chemical and physical properties (Castor and Hedrick, 2006; Haque et al., 2014).Considering the significance of REEs in many green energy applications

Some Perspective on China and "Rare Earth" Minerals Cato

Dec 03, 2020 There's little doubt that Chinese companies are major global players for rare earth minerals mining and processing. byproduct of other metals). not only the Environmental Protection Agency

Don't Panic about Rare Earth Elements Scientific American

May 31, 2019 The strong and lightweight nature of rare earth magnets, metals and alloys have made them especially valuable in high-tech products. Originally produced for the October 2011 issue of

Rare Earth Recycling Department of Energy

Jan 01, 2017 Recycling rare-earth-containing products would provide a steady, domestic source of rare earths to manufacturers while also reducing waste. Currently, the main roadblock to recycling rare earth elements is the cost required to purify the mixtures obtained from consumer devices.

Rare-earth mining in China comes at a heavy cost for local

Aug 07, 2012 What are rare-earth metals? A study by the municipal environmental protection agency showed that rare-earth minerals were the source of their problems. The minerals themselves caused pollution

For Near-Term U.S. Decoupling From China For Rare Earth

May 29, 2020 Emerging capacity in the U.S., using recycled rare earth magnets as feed, could also help ease our supply chain vulnerabilities. The problems with actually accomplishing the

Thermal barrier coating Wikipedia

The main challenge to overcome is the polymorphic nature of most rare earth oxides at elevated temperatures, as phase instability tends to negatively impact thermal shock resistance. Metal-Glass Composites. A powder mixture of metal and normal glass can be plasma-sprayed in vacuum, with a suitable composition resulting in a TBC comparable to YSZ.

Boom in Mining Rare Earths Poses Mounting Toxic Risks

Jan 28, 2013 Contrary to their name, the 17 rare earth elements are relatively common — their rarity comes from the labor involved in separating them from surrounding rock. The process requires a cocktail of chemical compounds and produces a “tremendous amount” of solid waste, according to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Rare earths: contested ground between US and China

Rare earth elements (REEs) are 17 metals that are actually not that hard to find, with some as abundant in the planet’s crust as lead or copper. Their “rarity” is a result of it being hard